February 13, Alright, we might as well have a thread to go to when discussing this sort of thing. For Arts and Faith references to date, looks like we already have threads "Existential movies? Obviously, these fellows do not always agree, but there are still certain and particular ideas advocated by all of them as a group, reacting against rationalist philosophy and theology. Beginning - Anyway, yes, we probably should discuss this in some new thread, although another reason why I haven't tried to argue in detail on Kierkegaard's behalf, besides the untopicality of it in this thread and its flammabilty, is because I don't by any means consider myself an expert on Kierkegaard.
In the first decades of the 20 th century, a number of philosophers and writers had explored existentialist ideas; the only difference was in the name.
Unamuno rejected systematic philosophy in favor of the individual's quest for faith.
A novelist, poet and dramatist as well as philosophy professor at the University of Salamanca, Unamuno's short story about a priest's crisis of faith, "Saint Manuel the Good, Martyr" has been collected in anthologies of existentialist fiction.
Another Spanish thinker, Ortega y Gasset, writing inheld that the human existence must always be defined as the individual person combined with the concrete circumstances of his life: Although Martin Buber wrote his major philosophical works in German, and studied and taught at the Universities of Berlin and Frankfurt, he stands apart from the mainstream of German philosophy.
Born into a Jewish family in Vienna inhe was also a scholar of Jewish culture and involved at various times in Zionism and Hasidism. Inhe moved permanently to Jerusalem. For Buber, the fundamental fact of human existence, too readily overlooked by scientific rationalism and abstract philosophical thought, is "man with man", a dialogue which takes place in the so-called "sphere of between" "das Zwischenmenschliche" .
Berdyaev, also from Kiev but with a background in the Eastern Orthodox Church, drew a radical distinction between the world of spirit and the everyday world of objects. Human freedom, for Berdyaev, is rooted in the realm of spirit, a realm independent of scientific notions of causation.
To the extent the individual human being lives in the objective world, he is estranged from authentic spiritual freedom. A dramatist as well as a philosopher, Marcel found his philosophical starting point in a condition of metaphysical alienation; the human individual searching for harmony in a transient life.
Harmony, for Marcel, was to be sought through "secondary reflection", a "dialogical" rather than "dialectical" approach to the world, characterized by "wonder and astonishment" and open to the "presence" of other people and of God rather than merely to "information" about them.
For Marcel, such presence implied more than simply being there as one thing might be in the presence of another thing ; it connoted "extravagant" availability, and the willingness to put oneself at the disposal of the other Marcel contrasted "secondary reflection" with abstract, scientific-technical "primary reflection" which he associated with the activity of the abstract Cartesian ego.
For Marcel, philosophy was a concrete activity undertaken by a sensing, feeling human being incarnate -- embodied -- in a concrete world  Sartre adopted the term "existentialism" for his own philosophy in the s, Marcel's thought has been described as "almost diametrically opposed" to that of Sartre.
Unlike Sartre, Marcel was a Christian, and became a Catholic convert in In Germany, the psychologist and philosopher Karl Jaspers -who later described existentialism as a "phantom" created by the public  thought, heavily influenced by Kierkegaard and Nietzsche- Existenzphilosophie.
For Jaspers, "Existenz-philosophy is the way of thought by means of which man seeks to become himself.
This way of thought does not cognize objects, but elucidates and makes actual the being of the thinker  Jaspers, a professor at the University of Heidelberg, was acquainted with Martin Heidegger, who held a professorship at Marburg before acceding to Husserl's chair at Freiburg in They held many philosophical discussions, but later became 14 estranged over Heidegger's support of National Socialism.
They shared an admiration for Kierkegaardand in the s Heidegger lectured extensively on Nietzsche. Nevertheless, the extent to which Heidegger should be considered an existentialist is debatable. Following the Second World War, existentialism became a well-known and significant philosophical and cultural movement, mainly through the public prominence of two French writers, Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, who wrote best-selling novels, plays and widely read journalism as well as theoretical texts.
In a very short space of time, Camus and Sartre in particular, became the leading public intellectuals of post-war France, achieving by the end of A fame that reached across all audiences .
Camus was an editor of the most popular leftist Former French Resistance newspaper Combat; Sartre launched his journal of leftist thought, Les Temps Modemes, and two weeks later gave the widely reported lecture on existentialism and secular humanism to a packed meeting of the Club Maintenant.
Beauvoir wrote that not a week passed without the newspapers discussing us existentialism became the first media craze of the postwar era . Works by Camus and Sartre were already appearing in foreign editions.
The Paris-based existentialists had become famous. Sartre had traveled to Germany in to study the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and.In two of his greatest works, "The Stranger," and "The Myth of Sisyphus," Albert Camus exposes his readers to the existentialistic parts of philosophy.
The existentialism within his works shapes his characters, by determining how they will act and respond to what is going on around them. After his death, two of Camus's works were published posthumously. The first was an earlier version of The First Man, that Camus was writing before he died.
The novel was an autobiographical work about his childhood in Algeria and was published in That’s a question that Albert Camus dug into in his novels, plays, and essays. His answer was perhaps a little depressing. He thought that life had no meaning, that nothing exists that could ever be a source of meaning, and hence there is something deeply absurd about the human quest to find meaning.
Albert Camus (–) was a journalist, editor and editorialist, playwright and director, novelist and author of short stories, political essayist and activist—and, although he more than once denied it, .
In two of his greatest works, "The Stranger," and "The Myth of Sisyphus," Albert Camus exposes his readers to the existentialistic parts of philosophy. The existentialism within his works shapes his characters, by determining how they will act and respond to what is going on around them.
Feb 16, · To be clear, I by no means consider myself an expert in philosophy or on any particular philosopher. I'm completely a layman on the topic who simply does a large amount of reading, and so out of many of each of the major philosophers, I've read one or two of their books.