Due to the complexities of health care services and systems, investigating and interpreting the use, costs, quality, accessibility, delivery, organization, financing, and outcomes of health care services is key to informing government officials, insurers, providers, consumers, and others making decisions about health-related issues. Health services researchers examine the access to care, health care costs and processes, and the outcomes of health services for individuals and populations. The field of health services research HSR is relied on by decisionmakers and the public to be the primary source of information on how well health systems in the United States and other countries are meeting this challenge. This was expanded upon in by AcademyHealth, the professional organization of the HSR field, with the following definition, which broadly describes the scope of HSR:
Vivian Fonseca, president of medicine and science for the American Diabetes Association.
The message is to choose an appropriate [blood sugar] goal based on the patient's current health status, motivation level, resources and complications. Fonseca said the new guidelines were necessary because the management of type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly complex; there is a widening array of medications available to treat the disease, and new research studies are constantly being released highlighting both the benefits and the risks of current treatments.
The biggest change in the new guidelines is an emphasis on a patient-centered approach to treatment. For example, the blood sugar goal for someone who's young, healthy and motivated to manage type 2 diabetes will be lower than it is for someone who's elderly and has additional health problems.
HbA1C, often just referred to as A1C, is a measure of long-term blood sugar control. It gives an estimate of what the average blood sugar level has been for the past two to three months.
A1C is expressed as a percentage, and in general, the goal for people with type 2 diabetes is to lower their A1C levels below 7 percent. Someone without diabetes generally has levels below 5. In the past, the belowpercent goal was applied to most people with type 2 diabetes.
But, the new guidelines note that more stringent goals, such as keeping A1C between 6 and 6. Low blood sugar levels can be a potentially dangerous side effect of many diabetes treatments.
The new guidelines suggest that blood sugar targets should be looser A1C between 7. Lifestyle changes remain an important part of any type 2 diabetes management plan in the new guidelines.
The recommendations are to lose 5 percent to 10 percent of body weight, and to participate in modest exercise for at least two-and-a-half hours each week.
The medication metformin is also recommended as a first-line treatment for people with type 2 diabetes. Metformin works by making the body more receptive to the hormone insulin.
Metformin therapy should begin as soon as someone is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, unless they have a near-normal A1C and are highly motivated to make lifestyle changes, according to the guidelines. In such a case, doctors may choose to follow up with the patient in three to six months to see if the lifestyle changes have been effective.
If not, metformin should be started. The guidelines also recommend adding another drug to metformin therapy if blood sugar levels aren't under control after three months on metformin alone.
Again, this is an area where the patient needs to be considered and consulted. Each additional treatment option has its own risks and benefits. Talk to your doctor about which might be right for you. Treat the patient and not the blood sugar.
The type of medication should be tailored to the pathophysiology of the patient," explained Dr. But, I believe it's important to be aggressive early in the disease to prevent complications," Zonszein said. And, he added, although the current guidelines only cover the treatment of high blood sugar, it's also important to remember to control cholesterol and high blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes.
More Health News on:To help prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should: achieve and maintain healthy body weight; The WHO "Global report on diabetes" provides an overview of the diabetes of fasting plasma glucose in a population that is higher than the theoretical distribution that would minimize risks to health (derived from.
Type 2 Diabetes Complications: More Than Just Heart Disease Having diabetes isn’t a death sentence. In fact, an article published in September in the journal BMJ suggests that, with proper management and weight loss, you can effectively reverse symptoms of the disease.
Complications. Diabetes increases your risk for many serious health problems. The good news? With the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes, many people with diabetes are able to prevent or delay the onset of complications.
This makes it different from type 1 and type 2 diabetes which are permanent. If gestational diabetes is not properly controlled, it can lead to harmful effects on both the mother and the baby. Gestational diabetes carries an increased risk of congenital problems such as heart defects, and a slightly higher chance of stillbirth or death as a.
All people with type 1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood sugar. When your doctor talks about insulin, he’ll mention three main things: "Onset" is the length of time before it reaches your bloodstream and begins lowering blood sugar.
Dec 15, · Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its It is a useful medicinal and vegetable plant for human health and one of the most promising plants for diabetes the action of human insulin in the body and thus may be used as plant-based insulin replacement in patients with type-1 diabetes.