He is a con-artist fox in the city of Zootopia who finds himself compelled to aid Officer Judy Hoppsa rabbit, in her investigation. Contents [ show ] Background Nick came from a poor background living with his mother his father is never seen or mentioned. As a child, Nick had a dream of joining the local Junior Ranger Scouts, for the goal of receiving genuine acceptance.
As with many terms in psychology, learned helplessness is both descriptive and explanatory. Learned helplessness describes a constellation of maladaptive passive behaviors that animals dogs, rats, cats, fish, mice, and humans frequently exhibit following exposure to uncontrollable events.
Learned helplessness is also a cognitive, expectancy-based explanation; after repeated, inescapable, aversive helplessness, animals expect to be helpless and do not attempt to change the situation—they have learned that their actions are ineffective.
Research on learned helplessness began in the s at Richard L. Graduate students Russell Leaf and J. Bruce Overmier had discovered that after Pavlovian conditioning with unavoidable mild shocks, the lab dogs were useless for any subsequent experiments that required learning how to avoid or escape shock.
The majority of the dogs would sit and passively endure the aversive but otherwise physically harmless shock. This phenomenon piqued the interest of graduate students Maier and Seligman, who set out to show that the dogs had learned more than just Pavlovian conditioning. Maier and Seligman suggested that the dogs had learned that when shocked, nothing they did mattered—they had learned that they had no control over their environment.
Most early research on learned helplessness used a three-group, two-phase, experimental design to make sure that uncontrollability was the cause of the helplessness. In the first phase, one group experienced controllable aversive stimuli; for example, they could learn to avoid a shock by jumping across a barrier into a safe area.
In the second phase, the experimenters subject all three groups to aversive stimuli in a new controllable context; in other words, all have equal opportunity to escape. Six percent of the naive control group dogs also displayed helplessness, which Seligman suggests may have been due to prior traumatic experiences.
Typically helpless animals show signs of stress, such as lethargy, dejection, and reduced appetite, dominance aggression, sexual appetite, and serotonin levels. These studies demonstrated that for most animals, uncontrollable aversive experiences have devastating effects on subsequent learning, motivation, and emotion.
Seligman reports that therapy for dogs with learned helplessness required dragging them into the safe area a number of times before they began to respond on their own. Donald Hiroto and Seligman subsequently extended this research paradigm to humans, using insoluble discrimination problems rather than shocks.
It is important to note that in this transition from animals to humans, stimuli aversiveness was not the only parameter to change; the transition also included a shift from simple taskless stimuli to tasks such as unsolvable discrimination problems or puzzles.
This shift has complicated the explanation of learning deficits following failure. Additionally, human susceptibility to learned helplessness varies considerably across individuals and situations. These differences correlate with a variety of characteristics: Nonetheless, the core features of the learned helplessness phenomenon remain: A significant portion of research on learned helplessness in humans has focused on its relationship with reactive depression.
This reformulation recognizes that much of life is uncontrollable, yet not everyone is depressed by it. According to the reformulation of learned helplessness theory, whether depression results from helplessness situations depends on the attributions people make about the causes of the negative event.
Each of these causal attributions has a different effect on subsequent behavior. Global attributions generalize helplessness across tasks and time, internal attributions imply a sense of failed responsibility, and stable attributions imply that it is not possible to change the parameters of the current situation.
A large body of research has found long-term individual differences in explanatory style and vulnerability to helplessness. Persons who have experienced a significant childhood loss e.LEARNING AND MOTIVATION () 1, Failure to Escape Traumatic Electric Shock: Incompatible Skeletal-Motor Responses or Learned Helplessness?'.
The 3 groups that were exposed to inescapable shock were significantly slower in escape-avoidance than the control group (Group 1) that was not exposed to the inescapable shock.
The 3 groups that received the inescapable shocks did not differ significantly among themselves, though. American Red Cross certificates may be issued upon successful completion of a training program, which uses this textbook as an integral part of the course. By itself, the text material does not constitute comprehensive Red Cross training.
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Failure to Escape Traumatic Shock by Seligman and Maier The purpose of this study was to determine the type of learning acquisition in dogs that were subjected to three different styles of electric shock.
dogs given inescapable shock in a pavlovian harness later give up and passively accept traumatic shock in shuttlebox escape/avoidance training.
a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon was presented. The first meaning of "helplessness" (from the original dog experiments) was that exposure to inescapable shock resulted in subsequent failure to learn to avoid (escapable) shock. The second meaning of "helplessness" referred to the cognitive and motivational deficits exhibited by the animals.