Building on commercial links in the wool trade promoted during the reign of King Richard III of England, Henry established the modern English merchant marine system, which greatly expanded English shipbuilding and seafaring. Henry established the munitions-based Royal Navy that was able to hold off the Spanish Armada in Ireland The first substantial achievements of the colonial empire stem from the Act for Kingly Title, passed by the Irish parliament in This statute converted Ireland from a lordship under the authority of the English crown to a kingdom in its own right.
He was educated at University College School —, excelling academically and gaining prizes in French and mathematics. At 18 he joined his uncle's screw-making business, Nettlefolds of Birminghamin which his father had invested.
The company became known as Nettlefold and Chamberlain when Chamberlain became a partner with Joseph Nettlefold. During the business's most prosperous period, it produced two-thirds of all metal screws made in England, and by the time of Chamberlain's retirement from business in it was exporting worldwide.
Their daughter Beatrice Mary Chamberlain — was born in May Harriet, who had had a premonition that she would die in childbirth, became ill two days after the birth of their son Joseph Austen in Octoberand died three days later. Chamberlain devoted himself to business, while bringing up Beatrice and Austen with the Kenrick parents-in-law.
Chamberlain and Florence had four children: On 13 FebruaryFlorence gave birth to their fifth child, but she and the child died within a day.
In Chamberlain married for the third time in Washington, D. They had no children, but she eased his acceptance into upper-class society in the second half of his career.
InEarl Russell 's Liberal administration submitted a Reform Bill to createnew voters, but the Bill was opposed by the " Adullamite " Liberals for disrupting the social order, and criticised by Radicals for not conceding the secret ballot or household suffrage.
The Bill was defeated and the government fell. Chamberlain was one of the , including the Mayor, who marched for Reform in Birmingham on 27 August ; he recalled that "men poured into the hall, black as they were from the factories Lord Derby 's minority Conservative administration passed a Reform Act innearly doubling the electorate from 1, to 2, The Liberal Party won the election.
Chamberlain was also influential in the local campaign in support of the Irish Disestablishment bill. In the autumn of a deputation headed by William Harris invited him to stand for the Town Council ; and in November he was elected to represent St.
The government's aid to Church of England schools offended Nonconformist opinion. Chamberlain favoured free, secular, compulsory education, stating that "it is as much the duty of the State to see that the children are educated as to see that they are fed", and attributing the success of the USA and Prussia to public education.
The Birmingham Education League evolved into the National Education Leaguewhich held its first Conference in Birmingham in and proposed a school system funded by local rates and government grants, managed by local authorities subject to government inspection.
Bythe League had more than one hundred branches, mostly in cities and peopled largely by men of trades unions and working men's organisations. The NEL was angered by the absence of school commissions or of free, compulsory education. Chamberlain arranged for a delegation of branch members and 46 MPs to visit the prime minister William Ewart Gladstone at 10 Downing Street on 9 Marchthe first time the two men had met.
Chamberlain impressed the Prime Minister with his lucid speech, and during the Bill's second reading Gladstone agreed to make amendments that removed church schools from rate-payer control and granted them funding. Liberal MPs, exasperated at the compromises in the legislation, voted against the government, and the Bill passed the House of Commons with support from the Conservatives.
Chamberlain campaigned against the Act, and especially Clause 25, which gave school boards of England and Wales the power to pay the fees of poor children at voluntary schools, theoretically allowing them to fund church schools.
The Education League stood in several by-elections against Liberal candidates who refused to support the repeal of Clause Eventually, a compromise was reached with the church component of the School Board agreeing to make payments from rate-payer's money only to schools associated with industrial education.
In an article written for the Fortnightly Review, he coined the slogan of the "Four F's: In another article, "The Liberal Party and its Leaders", Chamberlain criticised Gladstone's leadership and advocated a more Radical direction for the party.
Mayor of Birmingham[ edit ] In Novemberthe Liberal Party swept the municipal elections and Chamberlain was elected mayor of Birmingham.
The Conservatives had denounced his Radicalism and called him a "monopoliser and a dictator" whilst the Liberals had campaigned against their High Church Tory opponents with the slogan "The People above the Priests".
The city's municipal administration was notably lax with regards to public works, and many urban dwellers lived in conditions of great poverty. The city's water supply was considered a danger to public health — approximately half of the city's population was dependent on well water, much of which was polluted by sewage.
Piped water was only supplied three days per week, compelling the use of well water and water carts for the rest of the week. We shall get our profit indirectly in the comfort of the town and in the health of the inhabitants". Despite this noticeable executive action, Chamberlain was mistrustful of central authority and bureaucracy, preferring to give local communities the responsibility to act on their own initiative.
In JulyChamberlain tabled an improvement plan involving slum clearance in Birmingham's city centre. Chamberlain had been consulted by the Home SecretaryRichard Assheton Cross during the preparation of the Artisan's and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Actduring Disraeli's social improvement programme.
Over-riding the protests of local landlords and the Commissioner of the Local Government Board's inquiry into the scheme, Chamberlain gained the endorsement of the President of the Local Government BoardGeorge Sclater-Booth.
However, the Improvement Committee concluded that it would be too expensive to transfer slum-dwellers to municipally built accommodation, and so the land was leased as a business proposition on a year lease. The death-rate in Corporation Street decreased dramatically — from approximately 53 per 1, between and to 21 per 1, between and German Naval law, Russian annexation of Manchuria, King Umberto of Italy is assassinated by anarchists: Arthur Evans begins excavations of Minoan Civilisation on Crete, Pablo Picasso's Le Moulin de la Galette, Paul Cezanne's Still-Life with Onions, Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim, Leslie Stephenson's The English Utilitarians, Edward .
Chamberlain, Joseph, –, British statesman. After a successful business career, he entered local politics and won distinction as a reforming mayor of Birmingham (–76). William Ewart Gladstone: William Ewart Gladstone, statesman and four-time prime minister of Great Britain (–74, –85, , –94).
Gladstone was of purely Scottish descent. His father, John, made himself a merchant prince and was a member of Parliament (–27).
Gladstone was sent to Eton, where he did not. CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH (–), British politician. Joseph Chamberlain was born into a striving middle-class Unitarian family in Trained in business practices by his father, Chamberlain learned more than economic lessons.
United Kingdom - The sons of William I: Under William I’s two sons William II Rufus and Henry I, strong, centralized government continued, and England’s link with Normandy was strengthened. Rebellion by Norman barons, led by the king’s half uncles, Odo of Bayeux and Robert of Mortain, was soon put down by William II, who made promises of good .
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