In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Lavidge bio and Gary A. Steiner bio Lavidge, Robert J. A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness.
Thursday, April 16, The Hierarchy Model of Advertising Effects AbstractThe most often cited hierarchy model was developed by Lavidge and Steinerand this has been regarded as the process by which advertising works for more a century.
But some recent reviews of the empirical literature found little evidence to support the existence of an advertising hierarchy, and this continues to be the subject of debate. In this paper, the contribution of these articles to marketing theory, as well as practice are compared and assessed. The paper then concludes with implications for integrated marketing communications.
However, Vakratsas and Ambler have recently reviewed more than journal articles and books in an effort to better understand how advertising works and affects the consumer. Their evidence initiated much debate most recently by Weilbacher and Barry in their articles published in Journal of Advertising Research, where they discuss the hierarchy model of advertising effects.
In this paper, a comparison and assessment is made of the contribution of articles to marketing theory and practice, based on reviewing the published literature.
The paper also examines the implications of this for integrated marketing communications.
The traditional hierarchy Lavidge and steiner asserts that consumers respond to advertising messages in a very ordered way. In two of the best-known response hierarchy models see appendix, figure 2while these response models may appear similar, they were developed for different reasons.
This model depicts the buyer as passing successively through attention, interest, desire, and action.
The hierarchy of effects model was developed by Lavidge and Steiner showing the process by which advertising works. Consumers change their minds about a product, then they change their attitude, and then they act. In other words, the Lavidge and steiner begins with cognition, which translates to affect, which then translates to behaviour.
The author adds that the marketing literature continues to embrace the hierarchy of advertising effects formulation as a basis for measuring the effects of advertising. Therefore, these dissimilar goals of advertising have reflected differences in approaching the way in which the effectiveness of advertising measured.
Despite the fact that the hierarchy of advertising effects model of how advertising works has been around in the literature of marketing for a long time, Weilbacher claims it as an intuitive, non-validated explanation of how advertising works.
Primarily, the hierarchy of effects is fragile, rewarding the relation of any consumer to any particular brand: As mentioned by Weilbacher in his article, the crucial conceptual weaknesses of the hierarchy model of advertising effects result in its intuition and non-validation.
First, the hierarchy is relevant only to advertising. In some marketing situations, advertising alone may occasionally cause sales for some brands, but in the majority of marketing situations, sales are caused by a combination of marketing factors such as superior product, availability of distribution and competitive price, as well as an effective total program of marketing communications including, but not limited to, advertising.
Second, the hierarchy models of advertising effects are based on a suspected model of human thought processes. Advertising is regarded as a distinct stimulus that ultimately leads through a rigid series of stages or steps to the eventual response of a consumer brand selection or purchase.
Finally, the hierarchy models suggest that all advertisements affect consumers in the same ways, since the nature of hierarchy models of advertising effects is that every advertisement works in exactly the same way as every other advertisement. Weilbacher concludes that crucial understanding of the effects of marketing communications, including advertising, may be illusive, because the understanding of the brain and how, exactly, it interacts with its environment based on the cognitive science is now not clear.
According to Barrythis model has been rational and regarded as a guideline. Thus, the model is still perceptive and rational as a result of its logic.
In most cases, people have to process, value that information in positively or negatively manner, and then behave or not behave in some way.
Hence, the hierarchy model is an appropriate framework for any of these forms of marketing communication. In all, points of view of the two authors suggest that there are many implications, as well as calls for action on further research to examine the hierarchy model and develop different hierarchical models for various consumer decision making situations.
Implications for Integrated Marketing CommunicationsEven though there are still arguments among advertising academics and practitioners about the theory of how advertising works, the hierarchy of effects models are clearly practical.
They are useful to promotional planners from several perspectives. The marketer needs to know where audience members are on the response hierarchy. For example, it may suppose that: For the first segment of the market, the communication task involves increasing the awareness level for the brand.
The number of advertisements may be increased, or a product sampling program may be used. Nevertheless, some recent reviews of the empirical literature indicate the fragile existence of the hierarchy model and suggest that alternatives should be approached.
The implication of these criticisms is that marketers should focus on cognition, affect, and experience as critical variables that advertising may affect. In terms of the integrated marketing communication program, it is the responsibility of planners to learn as much as possible about their target audience and how it may respond to advertising, along with other forms of marketing communication.
As Weilbacher noted, marketing communications programs include more than just advertising. Consumers are continually immersed in brand-sponsored communications that include public relations, a broad range of sales promotion activities, websites, direct marketing, event sponsorships, movie and television show product placements, and other forms of marketing communication.
Hierarchy models must move beyond just explaining the effects of advertising and consider how, and with what effects, consumers synthesize information from all the various integrated marketing communications activities for a brand.
ConclusionFrom the well-known AIDA model to the recent alternative models, the hierarchy models of effects have been conceived as a managerial framework in advertising literature.Lavidge and Steiner’s hierarchy of effects theory which was propounded in was, according to Clow and Baack (), to clarify the effects of advertising copies and campaigns.
The theory. The most often cited hierarchy model was developed by Lavidge and Steiner, and this has been regarded as the process by which advertising works for decades. But some recent reviews of the empirical literature found little evidence to support the. Oct 07, · The pre slides and the lecture discussed the Lavidge and Steiner ()’s model, which is a developed version of the AIDA HEO model.
The Lavidge and Steiner Model suggests 6 levels in which a consumer must systematically move through from initial awareness to final purchase. Lavidge and Steiner model: The best-known Hierarchy of effects model is the Lavidge and Steiner model.
This model suggests that advertisements take customers through a series of steps from initial awareness to final purchase of the product. in , Lavidge and Steiner supported the AIDA model and in addition to that, they thought that customer progresses through three main steps which are respectively cognitive, affective and conative stages.
Hierarchy of Effects model, at this point, provides us an indirect measure of its success. We. Figure Effect of advertising on consumers: movement from awareness to action various steps in the Lavidge and Steiner hierarchy of effects model as the consumer moves from awareness to purchase, along with examples of types of promotion or advertising relevant to each step.