Alamy Condoleezza Rice, the US secretary of state, argued that the MEK was on the list of terrorist organisations and should be treated as such. But Iran hawks, including then secretary of defence, Donald Rumsfeld, and vice-president Dick Cheney, argued that the MEK should be used as a weapon against the Islamic republic — the next target in the neoconservative roadmap for remaking the Middle East. The US was protecting a group it also designated as terrorists. Between andseven Iranian nuclear scientists were attacked with poison or magnetic bombs affixed to moving cars by passing motorcyclists; five were killed.
Administrative agencies of various kinds e. Some do substantially the same kind of work as is done by courts and in substantially the same manner; others,… Defining principles One of the principal objects of administrative law is to ensure efficient, economical, and just administration.
A system of administrative law that impedes or frustrates administration would clearly be bad, and so, too, would be a system that results in injustice to the individual. But to judge whether administrative law helps or hinders effective administration or works in such a way as to deny justice to the individual involves an examination of the ends that public administration is supposed to serve, as well as the means that it employs.
In this connection only the broadest generalities can be attempted. It can be asserted that all states, irrespective of their economic and political system or of their stage of development, are seeking to achieve The causes of demonstrations in the german democratic republic in 1953 high rate of economic growth and a higher average income per person.
They are all pursuing the goals of modernization, urbanization, and industrialization. They are all trying to provide the major social services, especially education and public health, at as high a standard as possible.
The level of popular expectation is much higher than in former ages. The government is expected not only to maintain order but also to achieve progress.
There is a widespread belief that wise and well-directed government action can abolish poverty, prevent severe unemployment, raise the standard of living of the nation, and bring about rapid social development. People in all countries are far more aware than their forefathers were of the impact of government on their daily lives and of its potential for good and evil.
The growth in the functions of the state is to be found in the more-developed and in the less-developed countries; in both old and new states; in democratic, authoritarianand totalitarian regimes; and in the mixed economies of the West.
The movement is far from having reached its zenith. With each addition to the functions of the state, additional powers have been acquired by the administrative organs concerned, which may be central ministries, local, provincial, or regional governments, or special agencies created for a particular purpose.
Distinctions between public administration and private action Activities such as traffic controlfire-protection services, policing, smoke abatement, the construction or repair of highways, the provision of currency, town and country planning, and the collection of customs and excise duties are usually carried out by governments, whose executive organs are assumed to represent the collective will of the community and to be acting for the common good.
It is for this reason that they are given powers not normally conferred on private persons. To take another example, the postal laws of many countries favour the post office at the expense of the customer in a way unknown where common carriers are concerned.
Again, a public authority involved in slum clearance or housing construction tends to be in a much stronger legal position than a private developer. The result of the distinction between public administration and private action is that administrative law is quite different from private law regulating the actions, interests, and obligations of private persons.
Civil servants do not generally serve under a contract of employment but have a special status. Taxes are not debts, nor are they governed by the law relating to the recovery of debts by private persons.
In addition, relations between one executive organ and another, and between an executive organ and the public, are usually regulated by compulsory or permissive powers conferred upon the executive organs by the legislature.
The law regulating the internal aspects of administration e. In practice, internal and external aspects are often linked, and legal provisions of both kinds exist side by side in the same statute. Thus, a law dealing with education may modify the administrative organization of the education service and also regulate the relations between parents and the school authorities.
Another distinction exists between a command addressed by legislation to the citizen, requiring him to act or to refrain from acting in a certain way, and a direction addressed to the administrative authorities. When an administrative act takes the form of an unconditional command addressed to the citizen, a fine or penalty is usually attached for failure to comply.
In some countries the enforcement is entrusted to the criminal courts, which can review the administrative act; in others the administrative act itself must be challenged in an administrative court.
The need for legal safeguards over public administration Statutory directions addressed to the executive authorities may impose absolute duties, or they may confer discretionary powers authorizing a specified action in certain circumstances.
Such legislation may give general directions for such activities as factory inspection, slum clearance, or town planning.
The statute lays down the conditions under which it is lawful for the administration to act and confers on the authorities the appropriate powers, many of which involve a large element of discretion. Here the executive is not confined merely to carrying out the directions of the legislature; often it also shares in the lawmaking process by being empowered to issue regulations or ordinances dealing with matters not regulated by the statute.
This may be regarded either as part of the ordinary process by which the legislature delegates its powers or as an inevitable feature of modern government, given that many matters are too technical, detailed, or subject to frequent change to be included in the main body of legislation—legislation being less easy to change than regulations.
For instance, the regulation must not exceed the delegated powers; its provisions must conform with the aims of the parent statute; prior consultation with interests likely to be affected should take place whenever practicable; and the regulations must not contravene relevant constitutional rules and legal standards.
In some countries regulations are scrutinized by a type of watchdog known as the council of state before they come into force; in others, by the parliamentary assembly; and in yet others, by the ordinary courts.
In most countries the executive arm of government possesses certain powers not derived from legislation, customary law, or a written constitution.
In the United Kingdom there are prerogative powers of the crown, nearly all of which are now exercised by ministers and which concern such matters as making treaties, declaring war and peace, pardoning criminals, issuing passports, and conferring honours.
In Italy, France, Belgium, and other continental European countries, certain acts concerning the higher interests of the state are recognized as actes de gouvernement and are thereby immune from control by any court or administrative tribunal.
In the German Empire — the principle that an administrative act carried its own legal validity was accepted at the end of the 19th century by leading jurists. This led to the doctrine that administration was only loosely bound to the law. The doctrine was rejected in the Federal Republic of Germany —90however, and efforts were made to reduce the area in which the executive was free to act outside administrative law.The events of June 17, , in the former German Democratic Republic have been recounted numerous times, and in various forms.
Certainly the spontaneous demonstrations by thousands of German workers created a memorable day, but the movement ended as quickly as it began. Why was there working class protest in East Germany in June The troubles in East Germany in June reached a peak on June 17th, when there were mass demonstrations and a General Strike throughout the German Democratic Republic.
The groups will create timeline about the causes, course, and consequences of the Holocaust, the collapse of the Soviet Union, or reunification of Germany. The German Democratic Republic officially opens the wall after weeks of mass demonstrations.
Jun 30, · The Monday demonstrations in East Germany in to (German: Montagsdemonstrationen) were a series of peaceful political protests against the government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that took place every Monday evening.
Because the church played a big role in them, the Monday demonstrations are also sometimes called the Religious Protest.
The Red Army Faction or RAF (German Rote Armee Fraktion), was one of postwar West Germany's most active and prominent militant left-wing groups. It described itself as a communist "urban guerrilla" group engaged in armed resistance, while it was described by the West German government as a . The Red Army Faction (RAF; German: Rote Armee Fraktion), in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group (or Baader-Meinhof Gang), was a West German terrorist organization.
The RAF was founded in by Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Mahler, and Ulrike benjaminpohle.com region(s): West Germany.
Media in category "Uprising of in the German Democratic Republic" The following 15 files are in this category, out of 15 total. 13 days ago · In , an Alternative Olympic Games would also be held in protest of the official Olympic Games. It’s poster was of a muscular woman throwing a discus and shows how much cultural norms and acceptance of women in sport varied even at this time. In the ’s and ’s the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) would field a. Washington, D.C., June 15, – Forty-eight years ago, on June 17, , the German Democratic Republic (GDR) erupted in a series of workers' riots and demonstrations that threatened the very existence of the communist benjaminpohle.com outburst, entirely spontaneous, shocked the GDR's ruling Socialist Unity Party (SED) and their Kremlin sponsors, who were still reeling from the death of Joseph.