Oil palms are originally from Western Africa, but can flourish wherever heat and rainfall are abundant. The industry is linked to major issues such as deforestation, habitat degradation, climate change, animal cruelty and indigenous rights abuses in the countries where it is produced, as the land and forests must be cleared for the development of the oil palm plantations.
According to the World Wildlife Fund, an area the equivalent size of football fields of rainforest is cleared each hour to make way for palm oil production.
This large-scale deforestation is pushing many species to extinction, and findings show that if nothing changes species like the orangutan could become extinct in the wild within the next years, and Sumatran tigers less than 3 years.
Palm oil can be present in a wide variety of products, including baked goods, confectionery, shampoo, cosmetics, cleaning agents, washing detergents and toothpaste.
Demand for palm oil has increased rapidly in recent decades. This boom in popularity can be attributed to a number of key qualities of the vegetable oil, namely its high efficiency, producing up to 10 times the amount of oil per hectare in comparison with other vegetable oil crops such as canola and soybean.
Due to this high yield and the fact oil palms thrive in high-rainfall tropical climates, Malaysia chose to begin producing palm oil in the early 20th century followed by Indonesia some 60 years later.
Palm oil soon became a desirable choice for manufacturers, as it was made widely available, had a cheap price tag due to low production costs in South-East Asia and is diverse in its uses.
In the years that followed, the impacts of palm oil production soon became apparent to the rest of the world and the oil became a highly controversial topic. Malaysia and Indonesia, now the two highest palm oil producing countries, continue to rapidly replace their abundant rainforests with oil palm plantations.
Though still eaten in Western Africa as an important part of basic food staple dishes, palm oil is used in a highly reformed form by most of the rest of the world and traded in an immeasurable amount of product ingredients. The majority of palm oil produced is primarily used by Asian countries, but the demand in Western Nations has boomed in recent decades.
Today, palm oil can be found in anything from cookies and ice-cream to shampoo and air freshener, and the average Western citizen consumes over 10kg of palm oil annually. A major problem is that most consumers are uninformed as to which products contain palm oil that is causing severe environmental and social implications.
This is partly due to lack of regulations around the mandatory labeling of palm oil in many countries, leading to palm oil being labeled under more than different names.
Politicians, organisations and members of the public have fought hard in countries such as Australia to implement laws on the labeling of palm oil, but have been unsuccessful.
Currently, a third of all mammal species in Indonesia are considered to be critically endangered as a consequence of this unsustainable development that is rapidly encroaching on their habitat.
One animal of particular importance according to conservationists is the orangutan, which has become a charismatic icon for deforestation in Borneo and Sumatra.
An estimated orangutans are killed each year for this development. The orangutan is a keystone species and plays a vital role in maintaining the health of the ecosystem. An example of this being the spread of rainforest seeds in Indonesia, many of which can only germinate once passed through the gut of an orangutan, hence this primate is essential for the existence of the forest.
But the orangutan is not the only species affected by palm oil development; their situation represents the story of thousands of other species facing the same fate in South-East Asia. Deforestation for palm oil production also contributes significantly to climate change.
The removal of the native forests often involves the burning of invaluable timber and remaining forest undergrowth, emitting immense quantities of smoke into the atmosphere and making Indonesia the third highest greenhouse gas emitter in the world.
CLIMATE Pollution caused by the burning of secondary forests across Borneo and Sumatra increases the quantity of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, subsequently helping to excel climate change. Trees and plants filter such gas and release oxygen intern through a process called photosynthesis.
The removal of the forests themselves in these regions is therefore also a key factor contributing to the increase in atmospheric pollution, as less carbon dioxide is being removed from the air due to diminishing forests.
LAND In addition to its impacts on the climate, conventional palm oil development causes severe damage to the landscape of Borneo and Sumatra and has been linked to issues such as land erosion and the pollution of rivers. The root systems of rainforest trees help to stabilise the soil and therefore if the forests are cleared, land erosion after rainfall can become a common occurrence.
More information will be added to this section soon."Body Wars both teaches us the terms for engaging our opponents and that united efforts will win the war." -- Mary S.
Pabst, M.S.W. President, Eating Disorders Awareness and Prevention "Here is basic ammunition for all of us caught in the crossfire of Body Wars."Rita Freedman, Ph.D. author, BodyLove. The effects of advertising on body image have been studied by researchers, ranging from psychologists to marketing professionals.
"These days we know that the media and body image are closely related. Particularly, the body image advertising portrays affects our own body image. The ACR has accredited more than 38, facilities in 10 imaging modalities. We offer accreditation programs in CT, MRI, Breast MRI, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Ultrasound, Breast Ultrasound, and Stereotactic Breast Biopsy, as mandated under the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act, as well as for modalities mandated under the Mammography Quality Standards Act.
Nov 06, · If there is one insecurity that brings us all together, it’s definitely body image. We’re always bombarded with images of perfection and no matter how much we know about advertisements being Photoshopped or the extreme diets that celebrities endure or the fact that our bodies don’t prove our worth, it’s still hard not to tug .
Executive Summary. The U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (hereafter the “Access Board”) is the Federal agency that promotes equality for people with disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and.
I wasn't shocked at the reaction I received from my t-shirt. I'm used to being told by society that I must regulate my body to fit the norm.
I'm used to the fact that images of unaltered women are.