Unrealistic optimism gender and culture essay

Oral stage The first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stagespanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, and from the oral exploration of his or her environment, i. The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet fully developed, and, since the infant has no personality identityevery action is based upon the pleasure principle.

Unrealistic optimism gender and culture essay

Post Carbon Institute26 September under a Creative Commons License Akropolis by Leo von Klenze Could declining world energy result in a turn toward authoritarianism by governments around the world?

As we will see, there is no simple answer that applies to all countries. However, pursuing the question leads us on an illuminating journey through the labyrinth of relations between energy, economics, and politics.

Department of Energy anticipate an increase in world energy supplies lasting at least until the end of this century. However, these agencies essentially just match supply forecasts to anticipated demandwhich they extrapolate from past economic growth and energy usage trends.

The ratio of energy returned on energy invested EROEI for fossil energy production has tended to fall as high-quality deposits of oil, coal, and natural gas are depleted, and as society relies more on unconventional oil Unrealistic optimism gender and culture essay gas that require more energy for extraction, and on coal that is more deeply buried or that is of lower energy content.

Further, renewable energy sources, especially if paired with needed energy storage technologies, tend to have a lower some say much lower EROEI than fossil fuels offered during the glory days of world economic growth after World War II. And renewables require energy up front for their manufacture, producing a net energy benefit only later on.

The quantities and qualities of energy available to any society have impacts that ripple through its economy, and hence every aspect of daily life.

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Abundant, easily transported and stored energy from fossil fuels made industrial expansion possible during the twentieth century, and especially after World War II.

This period of turbo-charged economic growth had repercussions in fields as diverse as manufacturing, farming, transportation, and even music via the electrification of live performance as well as the flourishing of the recording industry.

Further, as archaeologist Joseph Tainter has pointed outsocieties often use complexity an increase in the variety of tools and institutions as a means of solving problems. But complexity carries energy costs, and the deployment of complexity as a problem-solving strategy is subject to diminishing returns.

All of which suggests that if and when energy sources decline, industrial societies will face systemic challenges on a scale far beyond anything seen in recent decades. Specifically, I address the question of whether and which societies will have a high probability of turning toward authoritarian forms of government in response to energy challenges.

However, as we will see, energy decline is far from being the only possible driver of authoritarian political change. The Anthropology and History of Authoritarianism and Democracy It is often asserted that democracy began in ancient Greece.

While there is some truth to the statement, it is also misleading. Many pre-agricultural societies tended to be highly egalitarian, with most or all members contributing to significant decisions.

Animal-herding societies were an exception: Herders, whose social relations reflect the harshness of their environment, typically live in places unfit for farming, such as deserts. A good example of democracy completely independent of the Greek tradition is the Iroquois confederacy of the American northeastwhose inclusive decision-making system incorporated checks and balances; it served as an inspiration for colonists seeking to design a democratic government for themselves as they threw off the yoke of British rule.

Early agricultural societies were often rigidly authoritarian. Marvin Harris explained this development in infrastructural terms: But the appropriation of so much power by an individual or family required further justification; hence new sky-god religions emerged, valorizing kings and pharaohs as wielders of divine power.

Farmers could grow diverse crops independently, without relying on state controls over water and grain. Prior to the fossil fuel era, Europe enjoyed a significant injection of wealth from its sail-based pillaging of much of the rest of the world.

Merchants, as a social class, began to jostle against the aristocracy and clergy, previous holders of political power. In modern times, industrial expansion based on abundant energy from fossil fuels has led to urbanization and to the employment of much of the population in factory, sales, and managerial positions.

Now, in all likelihood, comes an era of declining and reversing economic growth, as well as reduced mobility. Existing forms of government will be challenged.

Ultimately, larger political units may tend to break up into smaller ones, and many democracies may be vulnerable to authoritarian takeover. But the risks will vary significantly by country, based on geography and local history.

How Nations Succumb to Authoritarian Takeover Before exploring those risks, it may be helpful to review the four main ways in which democracies have changed into authoritarian regimes in recent history.

Election of a dictator.

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Why do people elect authoritarians? Usually the elected authoritarian-in-waiting only assumes dictatorial power later, without asking the consent of the electorate.

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Eleven years later, Ortega is starting his third consecutive term as president after rewriting the constitution, banning opposition parties, and consolidating all branches of government under his personal control.

Ortega orchestrated his power grab by polarizing the country, dividing the opposition, attacking congress, demonizing the press, forbidding protest, demanding personal loyalty from all government workers, and turning all his public appearances into campaign rallies for his core base of supporters.

Unrealistic optimism gender and culture essay

He institutionalized his cult of personality and normalized. The list of military dictatorships in recent decades is long. Clayton Thyne and Jonathan Powell maintain a coup dataset, according to which there were coup attempts worldwide from tomost by military factions. Of these, about half were successful.Harmful Women Stereotypes - The wide ranging harmful representations of women have now achieved a new level in popular culture.

Every medium (television, movies, magazines, games) has the problems of their own of depicting women. 24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep - Kindle edition by Jonathan Crary.

Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading 24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep. The horizontal and vertical scales are not shown in order to avoid giving the impression that this is a prediction.

This is a simulated scenario, not a prediction. Summary Several studies have been conducted to determine the influence that unrealistic optimism has over gender differences and culture. Unrealistic optimism is defined as the belief that positive (negative) events are more (less) likely to .

My first reaction to this post was “Wow, what a bad reason to change your attitudes.” My reaction upon reflection was to notice that I was a leftish neoliberal in my conservative Bible Belt high school, and in my left-wing liberal arts college I became more libertarian, but also more culturally radical so no one could confuse me for one of those Lew Rockwell-type conservative libertarians.

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Moderation / Criticism / Exposition / Exposés David Aaronovitch. Catholics try, rather unconvincingly, to show how conferring sainthood is different in principle to the pagan apotheosis (the process that made Claudius, for instance, into a God), but the distinction doesn't quite wash.

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